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Die Casting
#1
High Pressure Die Casting
One-stop Die Casting Manufacturing Service
YI HITECH is a China local die casting manufacturer, providing one-stop service for aluminum, zinc, and magnesium die casting parts from your concept design assist, prototype making, small volume production to mass production, with over 20 years of experience, we mainly serve global small and medium size companies for parts weight from 30 gram to 15 KG.
What is the high pressure die casting?
High pressure die casting is a general metal manufacturing process for casting metal products, that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity, where it is held by a powerful press until the metal solidifies. The mold cavity consist of two hardened tool steel dies which have been machined into shape and work similarly to an injection mold during the process. some of die have muti sliders to form the cavity, because molten metal is forced into mold cavities at high pressure, it is known as High Pressure die casting. High pressure die casting is a quick, reliable and cost-effective manufacturing process for production of high volume, metal components that are net-shaped have tight tolerances. The process is best suited for speedy production of bulk metallic parts that require minimal post-production machining. It is popular at aluminum, zinc, magnesium, copper alloy to form a product.
A production cycle in HPDC consists of
1) Metering of metal into the shot sleeve
2) Plunger or piston movement
3) Rapid die filling. The steel die, typically 200-300掳C, dissipates the latent heat
4) During solidification the casting is pressurized hydraulically by the plunger to feed the solidification shrinkage. Locking forces up to 4000 tons are commercially available to withstand the large pressures
5) The die is opened
6) The casting is then ejected. The hydraulic energy is provided by a computerized system that permits control of metal position, velocity and plunger acceleration to optimize the flow and the pressure during filling and solidification.
Types of high pressure die Casting Processes
All die casting process types are designed with the same goal in mind鈥攊nvolving a mold using injected molten metal with as a casting press. Depending on the type of melted metal, part geometry and part size, different die casting processes can deliver superior results over alternative methods. The two main types of die casting processes are hot-chamber die casting and cold-chamber die casting. Variations on these two types of die casting include.
The Hot-Chamber Die Casting Process
Hot-chamber die casting, sometimes called goose-neck casting, is the more popular of the two die casting processes. In this process, the cylinder chamber of the injection mechanism is completely immersed in the molten metal bath. A goose-neck metal feed system draws the molten metal into the die cavity. While direct immersion in the molten bath allows for quick and convenient mold injection, it also results in increased corrosion susceptibility. Due to this fact, the hot-chamber die casting process is best suited for applications that utilize metals with low melting points and high fluidity. Good metals for the hot-chamber die casting process include lead, magnesium, zinc and copper.
The Cold-Chamber Die Casting Process
The cold-chamber die casting process is very similar to hot-chamber die casting. With a design that focuses on minimizing machine corrosion rather than production efficiency, the melted metal is automatically or hand-ladled into the injection system. This eliminates the necessity for the injection mechanism to be immersed in the molten metal bath. For applications that are too corrosive for the immersion design of hot-chamber die casting, the cold-chamber process can be an excellent alternative. These applications include the casting of metals with high melting temperatures, such as aluminum and aluminum alloys.
Raw material mechanical comparison table
YI HITECHDie casting alloys properties and standards - Comparison with most used materials
Zinc Alloys (omitted alloys 6, 7 and 16)Aluminum Alloys (most used)
Commercial NameZamak3Zamak5Zamak2SuperloyZamak8Zamak12Zamak27AlSi9Cu3AlSi8Cu3AlSi12AlSi12Cu1A360A380A384ADC10ADC11ADC12
Applicable standard in EuropeEN12844-1998 / ISO15201-2006(E)
EN12844-1998 / ISO15201-2006(E)EN1706-2010 / ISO3522-2007(E)
Designation according European standard (EN)
/ International Standard (ISO)ZP3 ZP0400
ZnAl4ZP5 ZP0410
ZnAl4Cu1ZP2 ZP0430
ZnAl4Cu3
ZP8 ZP0810
ZnAl8Cu1ZP12 ZP1110
ZnAl11Cu1ZP27 ZP2720
ZnAl27Cu2AlSi9Cu3(Fe) EN46000AlSi8Cu3 EN-46200AlSi12(Cu) EN47000AlSi12Cu1Fe EN47100
AlSi8Cu3 (d)
AlSi9Cu3
Applicable standard in US (ANSI / AA/ ASTM)ASTM-B86
ASTM-B791
B 85/B 85M -08
Designation according US standardAG-40AAG-41AAG-43A
ZA8ZA12ZA27
A380
A360A380A384A380
A383
Applicable standard in JapanH 5301-1990
JIS H 5302-2000
Japan standard designationZDC1 (a)ZDC2 (a)
ADC10
Al-Si12Cu
ADC3 ©ADC10 ©ADC12 ©ADC10ADC11ADC12
Casting technology / mfg processHot or Cold Chamber High Pressure Die CastingCC HPDCCold Chamber High Pressure Die Casting
Yield StrengthMPa221269283300283-296310-331359-379140
140140170160165157
154111-170120330345
Ultimate Tensile Strength (b)MPa308 (241)331 (269)397 (331)333374 (297)404 (310)426 (359)240
240240317317330241
228200-260280435440
Youngs ModulusGPa9696969696867871
(71)
7171
44110105200
Torsional ModulusMPa x 10鲁33+33+33+33+33+
26.9
(26.9)
16.5
Elongation at Fmax (b)%2-10 (16)2-7 (13)2-7 (2)34-13 (18)4-10 (20)2-3.5 (3)
Elongation at Fracture%6.33.661085
<1
<113.53.52.51.5
1.4743035.8
Shear StrengthMPa214 (214)262 (262)317 (317)245275 (228)296 (228)325 (255)195
186
180190200
138
295
Compressive Yield StressMPa414 (414)600 (600)641 (641)590252 (172)269 (186)258 (255)
108-159
Impact Resistance (b)Joules46 (44)52 (42)38 (5)6542 (24)28 (20)12.7 (5)3.4
4
4
3.7 - 6
16.9
Fatigue Resistance (5x10to8)MPa48575989
60-90
60-90
120140140
50-70110
Hardness (b)Brinell97 (72)114 (80)130 (98)131103 (91)100 (91)119 (100)80
807075808583
8663-8575135131
Fracture Toughness Kicx107N.m-3/22.252.1
1.95
3.6(?)
3.6(?)
Damping Capacity @ 35 MPa%1819192120
1
1
25
Damping Capacity @ 100 MPa%4041424544
4
4
53
Densityg/cm36.76.76.86.56.3652.79
2.65
2.632.742.82
1.828.58.477.87
Coeff. of Thermal Expansionx10-6/掳C27.427.427.82723.324.12621
20
212221
25.2 - 26.020.320.316
Thermal ConductivityW/m/hr/m2113109105112112116125110-120110-130130-150120-15011396.296.2
51 - 72.730-10011552
Electrical Conductivity% IACS2726252627.728.329.724
27
2722
11.5 - 12.1
12.1
Electrical ConductivityMS/mm虏15-1615-1615-1615-1615-16161713-1714-1816-2215-20
6-104-154-15
Electrical Resistivity渭ohm - cm6.376.546.856.96.26.15.86.4
7.5
6.66.615.9
Melting Temperature Range掳C381-387380-386379-390375-377375-404377-432377-484538-593
516-582
557-596540-595516-582
468-598885-925885-925
Specific Heat CapacityJ/kg/掳C419419419429435450525963
960
963963
1020380380486
Coeff. of Friction
0.070.080.080.070.11
Poisson Ratio
0.300.300.30
0.300.300.30
0.330.33
Typical Precision over 100 mm+/- 碌m100100100100100250300250-350
250-350
250-349250-350250-350
175
Min Wall Thicknessmm0.40.40.50.30.60.91.21
1
0.31.31.3
1.2
Typical Production Speedsshots/hourLarge 200-500 Small 400-1000 Tiny 2000-3000200-300100-30050 -250200 - 275.
Productivity Rangeshots/hour200 - 360025017530 - 35040 - 2400
Typical Tool Lifeshots*10鲁300 - 2,00070050080-300300-500
Die casting alloy selection requires evaluation not only of physical and mechanical properties,
and chemical composition, but also of inherent alloy characteristics and their effect on die casting
production as well as possible machining and final surface finishing. This table includes selected die casting and other special characteristics which are usually considered in selecting an alloy for a specific application.
The characteristics are rated from best to poorest, being the best the most desirable and poorest being the least.
In applying these ratings, it should be noted that all the alloys have sufficiently good characteristics to be accepted by users and producers of die castings. A rating of poorest in one or more categories would not rule out an alloy if other attributes are particularly favorable, but ratings of poorest may present manufacturing difficulties.
The benefi ts of consulting a custom die caster experienced in casting the alloy being
considered are clear.
Die castings are not usually solution heat treated. Low-temperature aging treatments may be used for stress relief or dimensional stability.
Only for Al alloys temper may be given to improve properties.
Die castings are not generally gas or arc welded or brazed.ToolingLongest tooling life, can reach several million shots. Significant long-term tooling cost savingsLess than hot chamber but better than AluminumLimited tooling life, surface appearance quality (cracks) can determinate shorter (<50K shots) tooling lifeLonger life than aluminum, less than half of zinc
CostFastest / cheaper (hot-chamber) process possible on smaller parts. Best on miniature parts with Multislide process.Near net shape achievable.
Longer cycle timeLowest cost per unit volume. Most of time relevant secondary process are requested. Most of time assembly interface request machiningCan compete with aluminum if thinner wall sections are used.
WeightHeaviest of die cast alloys, but castable with thinner walls than aluminum, which can offset the weight disadvantage.Weight reduction compared with the Zinc family of alloys.Second lowest in density next to magnesium.Lowest density, lower than plastic
Dimensional Accuracy and
ComplexityBest of castable alloys (except ZA2), normally near net shape achievable.
Best part to part stabilityLess than hot chamber but better than AluminumNear net shape are possible, but accurate interface many time need machining, mainly small size geometries Draft allowance on holes at least 0.5 degree per sideComparable with zinc alloys
Structural Properties and
Wear ResistanceHighest ductility and impact strength (except ZA2).
Poor hot creep performanceHighest yield strength, hot creep and wear resistanceHighest Modulus of Elasticity, poor impact strength, can be further improved with heat treatmentsHighest strength-to鈥eight ratio, best vibration dampening.
Poorest impact strength.
Surface Finish & CoatingsBest as-cast surface 铿乶ish readily accepts electro coatings and decorative 铿乶ishes.Less than hot chamber but better than AluminumGood choice for coating processes that require high temperatures.
Difficult reach high cosmetic standard on plated partsGood as-cast surface 铿乶ishes can be achieved.
Difficult to electroplating
Corrosion ResistanceGood as cast and best in general after surface treatmentGood as cast and best in
general after surface treatmentAs cast depend of the alloy, Good after coatingDifficult to reach high salt spray resistance.
Conductivity, & EMI / RFI
ShieldingBest electrical conductor. Good heat transferGood electrical conductor.
Good heat transferBest choice for heat transfer. Good electrical conductivityGood electro-magnetic shielding
MaterialZamak3Zamak5Zamak2SuperloyZamak8Zamak12Zamak27AlSi9Cu3(Fe)AlSi8Cu3AlSi12(Cu)AlSi12Cu1FeA360A380A384ADC10ADC11ADC12MagnesiumBrassSteel
Al%3.7-4.33.7-4.43.7-4.56.4-7.08.0-8.810.5-11.524-27reminderreminderreminderreminderreminderreminderreminderreminderreminderreminder8,3-9,7
Cu%<0.050.7-1.252.7-3.33.0-3.50.9-1.10.9-1.52.0-2.52,0-4,02,0-3.5<10.7-1.2<0.63,0-4,03,0-4,52.0-4.02.5-4.01.5-3.5<0,03060-6560-65
Mg%0.02-0.060.02-0.060.02-0.06<0.050,015-0,030,015-0,030,01-0,020.05-0.550.05-0.550.05-0.55<0,350.4-0.6<0,1<0,1<0.3<0.3<0.3reminder
Zn%reminderreminderreminderreminderreminderreminderreminder<1.2<1.2<0.55<0.55<0.5<3,0<3,0<1<1.2<10,35-1,030-3730-37
Mn%-------<0.550.15-0.650.05-0.55<0.55<0.35<0,5<0,5<0.5<0.6<0.50,15-0,50
0,3-0,6
Cr%
<0.15<0.15<0.10<0.10
Ti%
<0.25<0.25<0.20<0.20
<0.2
Fe%<0,05<0,05<0,05<0,05<0,05<0,07<0,1<1,3<0.8<0,8<1.3<1.3<2<1.3<1.3<1.3<1.3<0,005
<0,1
Si%<0,03<0,03<0,03<0,03<0,045<0,06<0,088-117.5-9.510,5-13.510,5-13.59-107,5-9,510,5-127.5-9.57.5-9.59.6-12<0,10
Ni%<0,02<0,02<0,02<0,02<0,02<0,02<0,02<0,55<0,35<0,3<0,3<0,5<0,5<0,5<0.5<0.5<0.5<0,002
Cd%<0,005<0,005<0,005<0,005<0,006<0,006<0,006
0,17-0,23
Pb%<0,005<0,005<0,005<0,005<0,006<0,006<0,006<0.35<0.35<0.20<0.20
<0.3
<10,8-1,4
Sn%<0,002<0,002<0,002<0,003<0,003<0,003<0,003<0.15<0.15<0.10<0.10
<0.2<0.2<0.2
Others each
<0.05<0.05<0.05<0.05
Others tot.
<0.25<0.25<0.25<0.25<0.25<0,5<0,5
Benefits of high pressure die casting
1) High quality: Parts created through die casting deliver a long service life.
2) High reliability: Uniformity of mass-produced parts is exceptional.
3) Quick production: Die cast tooling requires minimal maintenance.
4) Versatile design: Die casting can create virtually any size, part geometry, surface texture or luster.
5) Minimal assembly: Assembly features such as studs, drill holes and bosses can be integrated into mold design.
6) Dimensional accuracy
7) Low machining allowance
8) Thin walls can be achieved
9) High strength of part
10) Good surface quality
11) High productivity due to high automation
12) Leak tightness if the casting skin is not machined
Disadvantages of high pressure die casting
1) The liquid metal is filled at a high speed during die casting, and it is difficult to completely eliminate the gas in the cavity. The casting is prone to defects such as pores and cracks and oxidized debris. Die castings usually cannot be heat treated.
2) The structure of the die casting mold is complicated, the manufacturing cycle is long, and the cost is high, which is not suitable to produce small batches of castings.
3) Die casting machine has high cost and large investment, which is limited by the clamping force of the die casting machine and the size of the mold. It is not suitable for the production of large die castings.
4) Types of alloys are restricted, non-ferrous alloys such as zinc, magnesium, and copper
YI HITECH also focus secondary process as below, committing to provide customer a complete part.
1) CNC Machining
2) Drilling and tapping
3) Trimming
4) Shot blasting
5) Powder coating
6) Painting
7) Chrome plating
8) Plating
High pressure dies Casting Applications
High pressure die casting is a process that has far-reaching applications. Any part production process that creates high-volume metal components will likely benefit from die casting. A variety of manufacturing industries currently rely on one or many types of die casting processes, including the automotive Casting, aerospace casting and power tools industries.
Due to the advantages of die casting, it has been widely used, mainly for non-ferrous alloy castings produced in large quantities. In the production of die castings, aluminum alloy die castings accounted for the largest proportion, 30% to 50%; followed by zinc alloy die castings; copper alloy die castings accounted for 1% to 2%. The most widely used die castings are the automobile and tractor manufacturing industries, followed by the instrument manufacturing and electronic instrument industries, and again the agricultural machinery, national defense industry, computers, and medical equipment manufacturing industries. Parts produced by die-casting include engine cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, gearbox cases, engine covers, housings and brackets for instruments and cameras, pipe joints, gears, and so on.
In recent years, high technology has been applied in the field of die casting. For example, a three-stage injection mechanism is used to control the pressure, injection speed, and internal gas. Develop special die-casting processes (such as vacuum die-casting, directional air-pressure casting, oxygen-filled die-casting, etc.) and apply computer control technology to effectively remove pores and increase the density of castings. At the same time, develop new mold materials and new heat treatment processes to extend the life of the mold. Made some progress in ferrous metal die casting
Our case studiesDie Casting
website:http://www.yi-hitechs.com/die-casting/
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